Friday, 28 December 2012

Of Jealousy, Ego, and Godly Parents: 1 Samuel 20 (Revived by His Word)

The chapter opens up with some very loaded questions that are replete with the rhetoric of the rationale for sin... NONE.  David was innocent; God is innocent of the insinuations produced by our resistance of Him as sovereign LORD of our lives.  It was Saul's jealousy and misplaced ego, much like it was Satan’s that led him to pursue David with a malicious mind to murder.  An amazing twist to the interlocking themes of the stories of David and Saul and of Christ and Satan is that Satan seemed to have reaped greater success in his efforts in that he did actually kill Christ.  But what started out as a dream come true, became Satan's worst nightmare - he lost the keys to death and hell.  Hence, the souls of those he would have kept in the hopeless captivity of death and the grave would live again, because they accepted the risen Lord, Jesus Christ.

So the miserable end of Saul does accurately depict the certain end that awaits Satan and his affiliates.  May the LORD of Heaven help us choose our association wisely.

We should note however, that although Jonathan eventually died in battle with Saul his father, he still represents those who side with Christ.  Many of Christ's followers will suffer privation and martyrdom, but as it will be for Jonathan's son later in the story is what it will be for believers in Christ - we will sit at the banquet table of our Lord.

But not to be missed in this story is the fact that although God treats us as separate individuals and expects us to make our own choices - much like Jonathan chose not to follow his father, the choices of parents still impact the future of their children; Jonathan died in battle with Saul, but his son mephibosheth did enjoy the good fortunes of his relationship with David.

I know that I've reaped many great benefits from my mother's relationship with Christ.  Thank God for godly parents!

To read the Bible passage and other blogs visit

Wednesday, 19 December 2012

Eating healthy in the Yuletide Season

Eating healthy in the Yuletide Season - Health - Jamaica Gleaner - Wednesday | December 19, 2012

In Jamaica, Christmas is a time when many people throw caution to the wind and indulge in food and drinks and various social activities. We don't usually think about our health at this time because 'Christmas comes only once per year'. But does this mean that we cannot make healthy food choices during the Yuletide season?
Remove chicken skin
Christmas is a coming and the chickens, goats, cows, pigs are getting fat for us to feast on, but do we have to gain weight, have uncontrolled blood pressure, high blood sugar, high blood cholesterol and pain in ankle, fingers and toes from gouty arthritis after indulging in the feast?
How can we make our holiday meals healthier? Remove the skin and visible fat from chicken, beef, pork, ham, goat and turkey. Bake, roast, steam, stew with no fat instead of frying. Use low-fat or skimmed milk when making the good ol' 'chocolate tea'. Skim the fat and oil from the top of soups and stews before serving. Use less butter, margarine or oil when preparing Christmas cake, pudding or other desserts. Instead, use more blended or pureed fruits as a substitute for fat.
For gravies, sauces and salad dressings, use little or no fat in recipe. Remember that consuming more fat than the body needs or uses is stored as fat and results in unnecessary weight gain, especially if physical activity is not a part of daily routine. This weight gain may result in an increased risk of developing diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease.
Limit sugar, honey
Sugar, honey, molasses and other sweeteners should be limited or if possible, avoided. This can be achieved by adding more pureed or blended fruits to cake, pudding and other dessert recipes and using less sugar or sweetener, if any at all. Sorrel, the Christmas drink, can be made healthier by using less water, adding less sugar and little or no alcohol. Adding more cloves, pimento, cinnamon sticks and ginger will enhance the flavour of this drink.
Make sorrel healthier
How about using the entire sorrel, including seeds, instead of only the calyx, or outer peels?
Anticancer properties are thought to be in the seeds. Alcohol and sugar add calories, and excess consumption may cause weight gain and increase the risk of developing diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease and obesity. It would be wise to reduce the consumption of alcoholic beverages and choose fresh, unsweetened fruit juices, lightly sweetened drinks, non-alcoholic wines, tonic and sparkling flavoured water.
Skip smoked, pickled foods
Smoked meats, salted or pickled fish, ham, sausages, processed and canned foods are high in salt and sodium. Eating these foods will increase the risk of developing high blood pressure, raise blood pressure and increase the risk of developing heart disease and chronic kidney failure. Processed and salted meats should be cut into thinner slices and smaller portions consumed. Choose fresh, unprocessed cuts of meat, fish, pork, chicken and vegetables because they have less salt and sodium. Use natural seasonings such as onion, scallion, garlic, thyme, pimento, pepper, lime/ lemon, browning and fresh vegetables instead of salt, powdered seasonings, soy sauce and ketchup. As black people, we are more likely to develop high blood pressure than our white, Chinese and Indian counterparts.
Let's not forget the snacks that usually fill up the cupboard. Choose fresh fruits, vegetables, unsalted crackers, baked chips, low-fat or non-fat milk, cheese instead of sweet biscuits, buns, candies, fried chips, sodas and drinks. Remember, snacks are not meals but fillers offered in-between meals and should provide energy, protein, vitamins and minerals.
Without good health, there won't be hope of acquiring great wealth, so let's end 2012 by continuing to make healthy food choices even in the Yuletide season.
Enjoy healthy eating this Christmas and may you have a fat-free New Year!
Marsha N. Woolery is a registered dietitian/nutritionist in private practice and adjunct lecturer at Northern Caribbean University; email:

Friday, 7 December 2012

Salvation: A romance Story – Ruth 3 (Revived by His Word)

Doubtlessly this inspiring story would have inspired Titus 3:2-5 that admonishes "The aged women... (to) teach the young women...."  In seeking answers to our prayers and to fulfilling God's will for our lives we must be aware that God has already endowed each of us with some natural and time-honed capabilities to accomplish these divine purposes.  Here therefore we see Naomi's wisdom, Ruth's charm, virtue, and beauty applied under the blessing of the Lord presenting Boaz with an irresistible offer.

You would imagine that Naomi and Ruth were great friends at this stage of the game; they would have formed a bond built by honesty, love and trust.  It wouldn't be difficult for Ruth to have responded to Naomi's suggestion accordingly, "All that you say to me I will do."  Jesus says of those who would be His friends, "You are my friends, if you do whatsoever I have commanded you." John 15:14.

I'd like to see represented in this story the following:
     Naomi representing Christ - providing the way to a better (more secure/eternal) life
     Ruth representing us - showing willing obedience to every instruction received
     Boaz representing the Father - who will find a way to secure our well-being (salvation)

There is neither deception nor dishonour here, just the pure genius of pragmatic strategy at work.  2 Timothy 3:15 talks of our being "wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus."  Salvation, though a gift of God, will not be gained by those who are slight of mind; but are wise (Matt. 25: 2).
To read the Scripture passage and other blogs visit

Wednesday, 5 December 2012

Eating when dengue fever strikes

Dengue fever is spread by an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. The symptoms of dengue fever include a sudden high fever of 40-40.56 Celsius (104-105 Fahrenheit); headache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, rash, joint and muscle pain.
As a result of fever and vomiting, dehydration may occur. Pain, nausea and fatigue may lead to a loss of appetite, weight loss and possibly death. The dengue haemorrhagic fever, if not managed or treated immediately, may result in severe anaemia and possibly death because of bleeding into organs and through various orifices of the body.
The treatment for dengue fever is to increase fluid, electrolytes and caloric intake. This can be achieved by drinking more fluids such as coconut water, and fruit and vegetable juices. Fruit and vegetable juices contain simple sugar that is able to provide energy and electrolytes such as sodium and potassium to maintain the body's fluid balance and maintain regular heart beat.
During a bout of fever, the need for calories and fluids increases because the immune system is fighting the foreign bodies that are present in the body. The brain (hypothalamus) regulates the body temperature and requests more water, which is pulled from the cells if fluid intake is not enough. Pulling of water from the cells results in dehydration, and if left untreated, it may result in death. Therefore, it is recommended that fluid intake be increased to meet or exceed demand (six to eight, eight-ounce cups per day).
Additional calories are needed in the form of small, frequent, nutrient-dense (little bit with lots of different nutrients) meals and snacks. This could include thick porridge, thick soups, fruit and cheese, pastry and cheese, and vegetable juices with powdered milk. Additional sugar or sweeteners and vegetable fat are recommended to increase calories and to maintain or achieve appropriate body weight.
When nausea is present, dry foods should be consumed that are non-greasy and low in fat, liquids should be consumed about an hour before or after meal, food should be consumed when in an upright sitting position.
For persons with dengue haemorrhagic fever, they are usually admitted to hospital and given intravenous fluids or drip and possibly given a blood transfusion. Oral fluids are given when recuperating but eventually additional iron-rich foods should be added to diet in the form of dried peas, dried beans, red meat, dark, green leafy vegetables to prevent or treat anaemia. When the iron-rich foods from plant source is being consumed, vitamin C-rich foods should be a part of the same meal. Dried peas and callaloo should be eaten with orange or guava juice or raw tomatoes to aid in the absorption of iron.
It is important that we make healthy food choices to ensure that sick time will be short and that, after dengue, poor nutrition will not be major problem.

Marsha N. Woolery is a registered dietitian/nutritionist in private practice and adjunct lecturer at Northern Caribbean University; email:

Friday, 30 November 2012

There's Always a King: Judges 17 (Revived by His Word)

"In those days there was no king in Israel; everyone did what was right in his own eyes." Judges 17: 6
This passage isn't all doom and gloom - there's actually a positive spin to it:

Within the context of Scripture a king in Israel should mean the voice of God heard through His designated leaders.  That wasn't always the case however, and isn't the case in most instances in our day, as kings and political leaders don't all represent the God of Scripture - as we understand Him to be.  In most instances if we were to follow these individuals we'd find ourselves at odds with God.

Interestingly then, the above passage was a sad commentary on the state of affairs then, and is the case in most instances today. But it is within this freedom of conscience that we enjoy our distinctive way of worshipping God.  We are free to choose Jesus Christ to be King of our lives.  Once Jesus is enthroned then He becomes our conscience and the dictator of all our beliefs and practices; He reigns supreme in our lives.

Now in the cosmic sense, there's always a king in place; God, or Satan. The question is: who is yours? I like the words of this song in answering that question:

"King of my life I crown thee now, thine shall the glory be
Lest I forget thy thorn crowned brow lead me to Calvary...." Amen.

To read the full passage and other blogs please go to

Thursday, 29 November 2012

Generous NCU Alumni Give $3.2 Million to Students

What hope is there for a fledging economy such as ours in Jamaica?  Certainly a part of that answer must include the average Jamaican citizenry being able to access tertiary education.  Tertiary education is the arming of individuals with the requisite skills to not just become employable, but to create employment for themselves as well as for others.
But what hope does the average Jamaican have in being able to afford tertiary education?  Certainly a part of that answer must include capable philanthropists making scholarships available to bright young Jamaicans who cannot make it on their own – much like what recently took place at Northern Caribbean University (NCU) during its annual Homecoming Weekend (November 22-25, 2012) celebrations.

In a special assembly session on the afternoon of Thursday November 22, 2012, a sum to the tune of $3.2 million was allocated to some 65 students.  These were monies put up by generous alumni of NCU.
“These scholarships will go a far way in assisting needy students at the University to attain a tertiary education," said Dr. Gardner. "We laud treasured alumni such as Dr Byron Robinson, Dr Linvol Henry, and their wives for their generosity during these harsh economic times.” 

The scholarships were awarded to students who earned a GPA of 3.0 or above, have a genuine financial need, work to assist with their tuition fees, and demonstrate leadership skills by being active participants in a school, community or a church-based organization. 

Jeria Levy, a third year student at the University shared with great delight, “I am honoured and relieved that I got this scholarship for now I am a step closer to completing my degree in Computer Science.”

“This act of kindness by our alumni has motivated and encouraged me to give back to others in need. My desire is to assist other students much like this scholarship will assist me,” he added.

Another student, Shadae Dixon said, “It’s wonderful to be a part of a University that has such caring and dedicated alumni. Their continued support helps hundreds of students like me to secure a brighter future; my journey on the road to success continues with hard work and determination.”

At Northern Caribbean University the hope of Jamaica’s rise and for the average Jamaican to become that critical agent of change is being kept alive and realized through its generous alumni.  Your challenge is utilize the help that is available to students, and to become a positive change agent to turn around Jamaica’s fortunes as we strive to accomplish our 2030 “First World” Vision.
To learn how you may become an NCU student and what programme of study you may pursue contact the Office of Admissions & Enrolment Management Tel. 1-876-963-7250/7400, Fax: 1-876-962-7500.  Or visit our website at

Monday, 26 November 2012

The Next 50 Years - Let's end this 50-year relationship with crime

The Next 50 Years - Let's end this 50-year relationship with crime - Lead Stories - Jamaica Gleaner - Sunday | November 25, 2012

Policemen take the fight to armed thugs on South Camp Road during the May 2010 West Kingston incursion. - File
Policemen take the fight to armed thugs on South Camp Road during the May 2010 West Kingston incursion. - File
Bernard Headley, Contributor
The data can be at times fuzzy, since back in 1962, we weren't nearly as mindful as we are today about matters dealing with crime. Nonetheless, those of us who crunch the available numbers and do the analyses are at one in concluding: violence became endemic and incidents of both common and organised crime skyrocketed in Jamaica in the years following Independence.
They have remained extraordinarily high since then.
We who were around as high-school youngsters in the immediate pre-Independence years can recall that, back then, a murder, whether in the village, heard about on RJR or read of in The Gleaner, was a tale filled with dread and horror.
Those sometimes gruesome killings were typically of the 'man-goes-berserk-and-shoots-(or-chops-up)-wife/lover-and/or children' variety, and indeed, we still have these!
But it was not until the late 1960s, five or six years into Independence, when we first heard of strings of killings that were random, politically fuelled, gang-led, or from gang feuds, donmanship or shoot-outs.
We'd always thought that the latter happened only on forbidden movie screens in John Wayne westerns and in the 'adventures' of the 1940s' folkloric Rhygin, our first bad man.
Most disquieting as we look back, though, is the manner in which crime's violent ethos - its seductions and signification - has become commonplace.
The Trend
One of our early, astute crime analysts, Dudley Allen, noted in the 1980s that the country's violent crime rates doubled (and then some) during the first 12 years following Independence.
From 1962 to 1974, manslaughter rates increased by 167 per cent, robbery by 771 per cent, rape by 160 per cent, felonious wounding by 137 per cent, and shooting with intent by 1,350 per cent.
For the more recent years, the Planning Institute of Jamaica has each year consistently reported high numbers for all serious crimes.
But let's stay with homicides, the most reliable index of serious crime.
Homicide rates for the nation climbed from a low of eight or nine murders per 100,000 inhabitants in each of the years leading up to Independence to an astounding 40 and 45 murders per 100,000 in the 1990s.
And from 2005 to the end of 2007, the rate skyrocketed to 60 murders per 100,000, or more than 1,500 persons murdered annually, and those figures do not include victims of police action.
The number of murders jumped to 1,682, or 63 murders per 100,000 in 2009.
We may have experienced, in the last year or so, unexceptional declines from that 2009 high, but reflect for a moment on these figures.
The raw facts are that we moved from a low of fewer than 80 homicides per year at the time of Independence to a high of more than 1,600 in the years since independent self-governance.
For every 100,000 Jamaicans alive in 1961-62, at most nine of them stood the chance of being killed by a gunman, robber or 'loved one'; 60 and more of them would at the end of the last decade.
Looked at another way, the chance of exiting life in a manner dictated by another human being (other than the State) has increased more than sevenfold since Independence.
Over the last 10 years, Jamaicans living on the 'rock' stood a far greater likelihood of being stabbed, beaten or shot to death than did the people in neighbouring, battered Haiti!
But what would have been responsible 50 or 60 years ago for the murder rate being as low as it was then?
And what would have changed so dramatically to cause the figure to have climbed to the horrendous numbers they are today?
The overriding explanation lies, paradoxically, in the social contradictions, the cross-cutting processes inherent to our transition to Independence, economic self-reliance and modernisation.
Thanks to agencies like the United Nations, the World Bank and the Organisation for Economic Corporation and Development, we are not in short supply of scholarly research that have documented sets of universal, unintended but seemingly ineluctable, negative side effects that have accompanied independence and national modernisation projects.
A current overview commissioned by Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC), for instance, points to the links between outcomes of modernisation and growth in crime and violence; the outcomes of concern being rapid urbanisation and persistent poverty, coupled with rising inequality.
Let's examine, briefly, how these particular forces coalesced in Jamaica's post-Independence story to bring upon us our terrible crime trouble.
Illusive industrialisation and drift to hollow cities
In 1955, the Jamaican population numbered just barely over one million people.
We lived then, not always happily, in mostly rural communities.
Close to 80 per cent of us lived in districts and towns that numbered 5,000 people or less.
Several communities across the length and breadth of the island, but particularly in the parishes of Westmoreland, St James, St Elizabeth, Clarendon and (rural) St Catherine, were reasonably well sustained by the growth and harvesting of sugar cane; and by manufacture of sugar and related products in sugar factories.
A major programme of upgrading the sugar industry in the 1950s, coupled with guaranteed markets (at guaranteed 'good' prices), saw the worth of sugar increase by 170 per cent between 1943 and 1953.
Profitability in the industry, and its ability to not only generate jobs but also to sustain whole communities, continued up until 1965.
Sugar was, therefore, integral to our storied early-1960s economic growth, as financial analyst Dennis Chung wrote in a July 27 column inThe Observer.
A measure of self-sufficiency had characterised the towns and districts that came under the sway of sugar.
Moreover, small-scale farming, which frequently supplemented income from sugar, added resilience to tight-knit rural life.
Village elders bonded and shared wisdom and expertise with youngsters.
Informal agencies and abundance of social capital worked well to socialise and insulate.
And the agencies - extended family, the Church, the neighbour, the district constable - were equally effective at unobtrusively maintaining order and discipline, and at restraining youthful impulse.
But sugar's downward spiral, which began in the mid to late 1960s, brought erosion in the natural 'mechanical solidarity' it had engendered in village life.
As people migrated out of communities in search of new livelihoods, the influence of village life on behaviour weakened; and whole communities fell apart.
The new livelihoods, jobs in industry, that the new nation's leadership classes had promised the displaced were, however, in short supply.
By the end of the 1960s, hordes of the uprooted had nonetheless made their way, children in tow, into and on the outskirts of the island's three or four main urban centres. They'd come in search of new kinds of work.
The result ... you guessed it! As Kingston, lower St Andrew, Spanish Town, May Pen and Montego Bay expanded in population size and geographic scale, so also did the spread of urban poverty and inequality.
"It was the concern with the extent of urban poverty and the vast differences between neighbourhoods in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that triggered the expansion of social enquiry into urban life, including in cities such as Chicago.
"Early sociologists found that the relationships between inequality, exclusion and criminal and interpersonal violence were more intense in settings characterised by unequal distribution of resources.
"Not only was criminal violence more pronounced in cities, but intra-urban disparities in violence were correlated with neighbourhood income levels: higher income areas suffered from property-related violent crime and more severe forms of violence (chronic or otherwise) concentrated in lower income settings.
"Many of these same observations are recorded in studies of inequality and criminal violence in the 21st century" (IDRC, 2012).
Inequality in urban contexts is a form of structural violence, which then triggers the more reactionary forms of violence.
The kind of inequality and deprivation referred to here, though, "are not limited exclusively to income, but also (to) lack of access to basic social services, lack of state protection, exposure to systematic corruption, and inefficiencies that most acutely affect the poor".
In situations of widespread and severe inequality, the urban poor are undervalued and marginalised, their daily living conditions heightened by the potential for conflict, and they become, above all other disastrous consequences, 'available' for pain, waste and destruction-to, among others, disreputable 'big' men and nefarious politicians.
Homicide rates inside branded 'volatile' communities of Kingston-lower St Andrew and Spanish Town are not 50 and 60 murders per year, per 100,000 inhabitants, by the way; rather, they are consistently in the region of 300 to 400 murders per year, per 100,000 people, as the works of colleague Professor Anthony Harriott indicate.
Children who had travelled in tow with parents in the 1960s would, in the years following Independence, morph into and reproduce two generations of hardened 'Johnny Too Bads'. 'Walkin' down the road' with a weapon in their waists, they could just as easily slit throats and make duppies of each other as they could 'make' babies - with the same lack of regard, or equal delight.
Fifty years forward with what works
Having come starkly face to face with this other Olympian side of our nation, what might be the way forward over its next 50 years to, if we can't reverse 'what gone bad a mawnin', at least not let it get worse?
Again, we are not lacking in the research findings department in identifying sets of 'what has worked' interventions, both in the international literature and from our local experience.
All successful interventions have had as their objective increasing the advocacy of the urban disadvantaged, and reducing the inequalities and other harsh effects of rapid urbanisation.
Pacification with community policing: Weeding out the 'bad guys' (i.e., the controlling dons and their henchmen) means reasserting state authority, combined with efforts to reinstall services and build trust in neglected areas.
Such was the security force's stated, good intention in West Kingston in the events of May 2010. We continue to watch and monitor.
Enhancing protection and reducing risks facing youths
A wide spectrum of interventions to simultaneously promote 'protective factors' and reduce 'risk factors' facing would-be victims, perpetrators and ex-offenders ought to be encouraged and sustained, and new ones imagined.
What we do with turned-out and turned-off youngsters, as well with the deported and first-time offenders, has a determinative effect on levels of crime.
The British High Commission in Jamaica, through its Jamaica Rehabilitation and Reintegration Programme, has been giving admirable support to a range of protective-type interventions.
Several UWI and Northern Caribbean University colleagues are also leading key community violence prevention initiatives - Claudette Crawford-Brown, Grace Kelly, Horace Levy, Elizabeth Ward, and Herbert Gayle come readily to mind.
But by financing instruments known as 'pay for success', or social impact bonds, private-sector actors (including in the diaspora) can also engage in actual investment mechanisms that are focused on youth-risk and violence reduction.
Promoting social capital and urban cohesion
The kind of social capital and cohesion that existed in the village can never be replicated in quite the same way in urban contexts.
Both, however, are "critical factors in binding community (and) the constellation of local social forces linking people together" (IDRC, 2012).
New, 'organic' forms of cohesion, such as youth clubs, neighbourhood watches and varying NGO networks that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit, have had the effect of promoting, within urban settings, security and resilience.
The 'tightening of social bonds can empower community actors to make more informed demands on public authorities' and to devise their own collaborative means for neighbourhood preservation.
Urban renewal and slum upgrading
The approach, though, need not be intensive social engineering.
We can build on innovations taken in the 1980s and 1990s by governments in South Asia "to regularise ownership and to identify innovative ways of working with private actors to harness the unrealised potential of informal (non-gully) settlements".
More recently, urban renewal interventions have started from the premise that informal settlements offer critical resources that can be built on, fostered and expanded.
"Some have developed market-based approaches to expanding the value of squatter settlements".
Think expanding recycling into a credible industry in and around Riverton City, for example.
Urban governance for security
Alongside the push for urban renewal and support for slum upgrading is a growing chorus to "transform modes of urban governance in order to stimulate social cohesion and economic development".
The concept of 'citizen security', for example, as currently articulated by both the ministries of National Security and Justice, is a way of framing a more holistic approach to promoting safety and enabling wider social and economic development.
Inducements to move out of the city
("I've got to go back home", Bob Andy):
One crime reduction proposal I have on the table envisions engaging in a nation-building project a pilot group of jobless deported migrants ('deportees') all with past convictions for offences committed while overseas.
The project would 'redeploy' out of greater Kingston willing participants, and engage them in social entrepreneurial agriculture - in a community in rural Jamaica.
The rudiments of this powerful social innovation idea were first fashioned by the deported migrants' assist organisations 'Families United for Reunification' and 'Second Chance'.
Projects like these, when sustained, go a long way towards promoting values of inclusion: they give an excluded, at-risk group a sought-after opportunity to participate meaningfully in national development.
Building Peace
Back in October 2000, the esteemed, beloved late Professor Barry Chevannes spearheaded an initiative by the UWI community.
The idea was "to assemble the various scholars from across the faculties to propose long-term strategies that could effectively lead to reduction in harms and overall aggression in the society".
I was given charge of writing the group's final document. Crime, Peace and Justice in Jamaica: A Transformative Approach, we decided to call the document (available on the Jamaicans for Justice website).
Our final recommendation called for establishment of a Peace (& Development) Institute, to search for, as a 2012 Inter-Development Bank report put it, 'antipodes' to violence.
Because a balanced development and nation-building strategy ought to include understanding, teaching and practising the ways of peace - respect and tolerance, healing and restoration, love and justice.
These are, in the final analysis, the ultimate 'protective factors' against crime and disorder.
Indeed, the United Nations Development Programme and other partners have devoted considerable resources to supporting "national peace architectures" to precisely this end.
We haven't received much traction for the Peace Institute idea in the almost 12 years (and more than 12,000 additional murders) since we proposed it - though hope lives eternal ... .
Bernard Headley is a retired professor of criminology and professor emeritus (sociology) at the North-eastern Illinois University, Chicago, USA. Send feedback to